Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation of Interim Period Statements

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Basis of Presentation of Interim Period Statements
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2017
Organization Consolidation And Presentation Of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation of Interim Period Statements

Note 1 - Basis of Presentation of Interim Period Statements

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and have been prepared by Barrett Business Services, Inc. (“BBSI”, the “Company”, “our” or “we”), pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission.  Certain information and note disclosures typically included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations.  In the opinion of management, the condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair statement of the results for the interim periods presented. The accompanying condensed financial statements are prepared on a consolidated basis. All intercompany account balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes.  Actual results may differ from such estimates and assumptions. The condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K at pages F1 – F29.  The results of operations for an interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for a full year.

Revenue recognition

We recognize professional employer (“PEO”) service and staffing service revenue as services are rendered by our workforce.  PEO services are normally used by organizations to satisfy ongoing needs related to the management of human capital and are governed by the terms of a client services agreement which covers all employees at a particular work site. Our client services agreements have a minimum term of one year, are renewable on an annual basis and typically require 30 days’ written notice to cancel or terminate the contract by either party.  In addition, our client services agreements provide for immediate termination upon any default of the client regardless of when notice is given.  

We report PEO revenues on a net basis because we are not the primary obligor for certain of the services provided to our clients on behalf of their employees pursuant to our client services agreements. Specifically, we present revenue net of the amounts received or billed for direct payroll expenses such as salaries, wages, health insurance, and employee out-of-pocket expenses incurred incidental to employment. Safety incentive costs are also netted against PEO service revenue in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. Safety incentives represent cash incentives paid to certain client companies for maintaining safe-work practices and minimizing workplace injuries. The safety incentive is based on a percentage of annual payroll and is paid annually to clients who meet predetermined workers’ compensation claims cost objectives.

Cost of revenues

Our cost of revenues for PEO services includes employer payroll-related taxes and workers’ compensation costs. Our cost of revenues for staffing services includes direct payroll costs, employer payroll-related taxes, employee benefits, and workers’ compensation costs. Direct payroll costs represent the gross payroll earned by staffing services employees based on salary or hourly wages. Payroll taxes and employee benefits consist of the employer’s portion of Social Security and Medicare taxes, federal and state unemployment taxes, and staffing services employee reimbursements for materials, supplies and other expenses, which are paid by our customer. Workers’ compensation costs consist primarily of the costs associated with our workers’ compensation program, including claims reserves, claims administration fees, legal fees, medical cost containment (“MCC”) expense, state administrative agency fees, third-party broker commissions, risk manager payroll, premiums for excess insurance, the fronted insurance program, and costs associated with operating our two wholly owned insurance companies, Associated Insurance Company for Excess (AICE) and Ecole Insurance Company (Ecole).

Cash and cash equivalents

We consider non-restricted short-term investments, which are highly liquid, readily convertible into cash, and have maturities at acquisition of less than three months, to be cash equivalents for purposes of the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows and condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company maintains cash balances in bank accounts that normally exceed FDIC insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses related to its cash concentration.

Investments

The Company classifies investments as trading or available-for-sale. We had no trading securities at September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016. The Company’s investments are reported at fair value with unrealized gains and losses, net of taxes, shown as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in stockholders’ equity.  Management considers available evidence in evaluating potential impairment of investments, including the duration and extent to which fair value is less than cost. Realized gains and losses on sales of investments are included in other income (expense) as other, net in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. In the event a loss is determined to be other-than-temporary, the loss will be recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.  

Restricted cash and investments

The Company holds restricted cash and investments primarily for the future payment of workers’ compensation claims. Restricted investments have been categorized as available-for-sale. They are reported at fair value with unrealized gains and losses, net of taxes, shown as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in stockholders’ equity. Management considers available evidence in evaluating potential impairment of restricted investments, including the duration and extent to which fair value is less than cost. Realized gains and losses on sales of restricted investments are included in other income (expense) as other, net in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. In the event a loss is determined to be other-than-temporary, the loss will be recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.

Allowance for doubtful accounts

The Company had an allowance for doubtful accounts of $265,000 and $78,000 at September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively.  We make estimates of the collectability of our accounts receivable for services provided to our customers.  Management analyzes historical bad debts, customer concentrations, customer credit-worthiness, current economic trends and changes in customers’ payment trends when evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts.  If the financial condition of our customers deteriorates, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required.

Workers’ compensation claims liabilities

Our workers’ compensation claims liabilities do not represent an exact calculation of liability but rather management’s best estimate, utilizing actuarial expertise and projection techniques, at a given reporting date. The estimated liability for open workers’ compensation claims is based on an evaluation of information provided by our internal claims adjusters and our third-party administrators for workers’ compensation claims, coupled with an actuarial estimate of future adverse loss development with respect to reported claims and incurred but not reported claims (together, “IBNR”). At September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, workers’ compensation claims liabilities included case reserve estimates for reported losses, plus additional amounts for estimated IBNR claims, MCC and legal costs, and unallocated loss adjustment expenses, including future administrative fees to be paid to third-party service providers. These estimates are reviewed at least quarterly and adjustments to estimated liabilities are reflected in current operating results as they become known.

The process of arriving at an estimate of unpaid claims and claims adjustment expense involves a high degree of judgment and is affected by both internal and external events, including changes in claims handling practices, changes in reserve estimation procedures, changes in individuals involved in the reserve estimation process, inflation, trends in the litigation and settlement of pending claims, and legislative changes.

Our estimates are based on informed judgment, derived from individual experience and expertise applied to multiple sets of data and analyses. We consider significant facts and circumstances known both at the time that loss reserves are initially established and as new facts and circumstances become known. Due to the inherent uncertainty underlying loss reserve estimates, the expenses incurred through final resolution of our liability for our workers’ compensation claims will likely vary from the related loss reserves at the reporting date. Therefore, as specific claims are paid out in the future, actual paid losses may be materially different from our current loss reserves.

The Company’s independent actuary provides management with an estimate of the current and long-term portions of our total workers’ compensation claims, which is an important factor in our process for estimating workers’ compensation claims liabilities. The current portion represents the independent actuary’s best estimate of payments the Company will make related to workers’ compensation claims over the ensuing twelve months.

A basic premise in most actuarial analyses is that historical data and past patterns demonstrated in the incurred and paid historical data form a reasonable basis upon which to project future outcomes, absent a material change. Significant structural changes to the available data can materially impact the reserve estimation process. To the extent a material change affecting the ultimate claim liability becomes known, such change is quantified to the extent possible through an analysis of internal Company data and, if available and when appropriate, external data. Nonetheless, actuaries exercise a considerable degree of judgment in the evaluation of these factors and the need for such actuarial judgment is more pronounced when faced with material uncertainties.

Safety incentives liability

Safety incentives represent cash incentives paid to certain PEO client companies for maintaining safe-work practices and minimizing workplace injuries. The incentive is based on a percentage of annual payroll and is paid annually to customers who meet predetermined workers’ compensation claims cost objectives. Safety incentive payments are made only after closure of all workers’ compensation claims incurred during the customer’s contract period. The safety incentive liability is estimated and accrued each month based upon contract year-to-date payroll and the then current amount of the customer’s estimated workers’ compensation claims reserves as established by us and our third party administrator. The Company provided $27.6 million and $24.8 million at September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively, as an estimate of the liability for unpaid safety incentives.

Customer deposits

We require deposits from certain PEO customers to cover a portion of our accounts receivable due from such customers in the event of default of payment.

Comprehensive income (loss)

Comprehensive income (loss) includes all changes in equity during a period except those that resulted from investments by or distributions to the Company’s stockholders.

Other comprehensive income (loss) refers to revenues, expenses, gains and losses that under U.S. GAAP are included in comprehensive income (loss), but excluded from net income (loss) as these amounts are recorded directly as an adjustment to stockholders’ equity. Our other comprehensive income (loss) comprises unrealized holding gains and losses on our available-for-sale investments.

Statements of cash flows

Interest paid during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 did not materially differ from interest expense. Income taxes paid during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 totaled $2.5 million. Income tax refunds received during the nine months ended September 30, 2016 totaled $1.1 million.

Basic and diluted earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are computed based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for each year using the treasury method. Diluted earnings per share reflect the potential effects of the exercise of outstanding stock options and the issuance of stock associated with outstanding restricted stock units. Basic and diluted shares outstanding are summarized as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

September 30,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Weighted average number of basic shares outstanding

 

 

7,296

 

 

 

7,243

 

 

 

7,266

 

 

 

7,220

 

Effect of dilutive securities

 

 

231

 

 

 

162

 

 

 

273

 

 

 

130

 

Weighted average number of diluted shares outstanding

 

 

7,527

 

 

 

7,405

 

 

 

7,539

 

 

 

7,350

 

Reclassifications

Due to the adoption of ASU No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes, prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation. Such reclassifications had no impact on the Company’s financial condition, operating results, cash flows or stockholders’ equity.

Accounting estimates

The preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods.  Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.  Estimates are used for fair value measurement of investments, allowance for doubtful accounts, deferred income taxes, carrying values for goodwill and property and equipment, accrued workers’ compensation liabilities and safety incentive liabilities.  Actual results may or may not differ from such estimates.

Recent accounting pronouncements

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” The core principle of the update is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The update also requires disclosure of sufficient information to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers.

In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Deferral of the Effective Date.” The update defers the effective date of ASU 2014-09 by one year, requiring public business entities to apply the guidance in ASU 2014-09 to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period.

In March, April and May 2016, the FASB issued the following ASUs: ASU No. 2016-08, “Principal versus Agent Considerations - Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net;” ASU No. 2016-10, “Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing”; and ASU No. 2016-12, Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients. The amendments in these updates do not change the core principles of the guidance in ASU 2014-09. The effective date and transition requirements for these updates are the same as the effective date and transition requirements in ASU 2015-14. We plan to adopt ASU 2014-09 effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method, which recognizes the cumulative effect of application as an opening adjustment to retained earnings on that date. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2014-09 and all related ASUs on its consolidated financial statements and footnote disclosures. While our analysis is on-going, we do not anticipate any material changes to our consolidated financial statements as a result of adopting the standard.  

In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, “Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes.” The amendments in this update simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes by requiring that deferred tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The amendments in this update are effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company adopted this standard in the first interim period for the year ending December 31, 2017. The adoption of this standard resulted in a current to noncurrent adjustment to the Company’s current deferred tax asset balance of $25.2 million at December 31, 2016.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases.” The core principle is that a lessee should recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from leases, including operating leases. Under the new guidance, a lessee should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. The recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee have not significantly changed from previous GAAP. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating the standard and the impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements and footnote disclosures.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation.” The amendments in this update simplify several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted this standard in the first interim period for the year ending December 31, 2017. In the first interim period for the year ending December 31, 2017, an immaterial amount of excess tax benefit was recognized in income tax benefit on the condensed consolidated statement of operations and was classified along with other income tax cash flows as an operating activity on the statement of cash flows. On a prospective basis, when applying the treasury stock method for computing diluted earnings-per-share, the assumed proceeds will not include any windfall tax benefits.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, “Statement of Cash Flows: Restricted Cash.” The amendments in this update require that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company’s balance of restricted cash, which is within restricted cash and investments under current and non-current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets, was $70.4 million for the period ended September 30, 2017.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other: Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment.” The amendments in this update simplify how an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. The amendments in this update are effective for annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the standard but does not expect it to have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements or footnote disclosures.

In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-08, “Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt.” The amendments in this update shorten the amortization period for certain callable debt securities held at a premium. Specifically, the amendments require the premium to be amortized to the earliest call date. Under current GAAP, premiums and discounts on callable debt securities generally are amortized to the maturity date. The amendments do not require an accounting change for securities held at a discount; the discount continues to be amortized to maturity. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. As of September 30, 2017, the amendments in this update would not have a material impact on the Company. However, the Company will continue to evaluate the standard to determine any potential impact.